The Languedoc-Roussillon region of France comprises five departments, and borders the French regions of Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Rhône-Alpes, Auvergne, Midi-Pyrénées on the one side, and Spain, Andorra and the Mediterranean Sea on the other.
It lies at the extreme south-eastern edge of France, with only the department of Lozère not having at least a toehold on the Mediterranean. The region covers an area of 27,376 sq km (10,570 sq miles), with a population in excess of 2.5 millions.
The region is made up of a number of historical provinces. Two-thirds of the region, i.e. the departments of Hérault, Gard, Aude, the extreme south and extreme east of Lozère, and the extreme north of Pyrénées-Orientales, was formerly part the province of Languedoc.
The remainder, located in the southernmost part of the region, is a collection of five historical Catalan ‘pays’: Roussillon, Vallespir, Conflent, Capcir, and Cerdagne, all of which are in turn included in the Pyrénées-Orientales département.
These pays were part of the Ancien Régime province of Roussillon, owning its name to the largest and most populous of the five pays, Roussillon.
Places to visit in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of France
Today, Languedoc-Roussillon is dominated by extensive vineyards, and this has been an important wine-making centre for centuries, and some authorities consider that vines have grown in this region since long before the arrival of man.
This is a region filled with astonishing riches founded on a most complicated and turbulent history that has seen religious persecution, farmers’ revolts and attempts to eradicate the ancient Occitan language.
But what is not instantly evident is the marked contrast between the towns and villages that gather along the Med coastline, and the hinterland, where the landscape ranges from high mountains to vine-covered hills and what the French call garrigue.
Vibrant cities and Roman history
Languedoc-Roussillon is home to one of France’s most vibrant cities, Montpellier, which boasts the world’s oldest continuously operating university. The Roman cities of Nîmes and Narbonne manage their long history with dignity while retaining a casual and relaxed mood.
Carcassonne combines its workaday lower town with the medieval Cité. Farther south, the capital of French Catalonia, Perpignan, is one of the most pleasing cities to explore.
Along the coast (the littoral), the beaches are less developed than along the Riviera. Part of this is because of the stronger winds and the convoluted coastline.
Bustling Sète is ever-so-slightly shabby in an agreeable way, renowned for its seafood restaurants and the view from Mont St Clair.
For a touch of madness, try to catch the summertime water-jousting tournaments held in Sète on the Grand Canal, when opposing teams balance on gondola-style boats and attempt to knock each other off. It’s noisy, lively, and an unmissable part of a Sètois summer.
Naturists and swimmers
The landscape changes once you get to the Côte Vermeille, nearer to the Spanish border, where swimming coves are shoe-horned into the rocky coast, and seaside villages such as Collioure, Port-Vendres and Banyuls-sur-Mer exude a characteristic Catalan flavour.
Béziers, birthplace of Pierre-Paul Riquet, the man behind the building of the Canal du Midi, is often overlooked. But its 14th-century cathedral is a fine example of Gothic architecture.
The original building was destroyed during the sacking of Béziers in 1209, when the Catholic church’s crusaders slaughtered thousands of innocent people in their hunt for a handful of Cathars.
The walk up to the cathedral is well worth the effort for the magnificent views of the river Orb that winds through the city and out across the surrounding countryside.
Between Béziers and Montpellier is the Renaissance town of Pézenas. The town’s grand private residences, the hôtels particuliers, contain inner courtyards with elaborate stone balustrades, arches and other exotic flourishes.
Molière spent time here during an itinerant period of his life, and the town plays up the association, invoking his spirit with festivals celebrating 17th-century life.
The gateway to Perpignan is the 14th-century Castillet, which houses a Catalan folklore museum and whose arch is worth a climb for views of Mont Canigou.
At the southern end of the town is the Palais des Rois de Majorque, an imposing 13th-century reminder of when Perpignan was part of the kingdom of Mallorca.
The Romans in Languedoc-Roussillon
You can’t miss the mark the Romans made on the region. There are remnants of the Via Domitia, the road built in 118 BCE to connect Spain with Italy in the centre of Narbonne, which was a major port in Roman Gaul before the town’s harbour silted up in the 14th century.
Farther east in St-Thibéry, an intact Roman bridge crosses the Hérault river. Or make your way to Nîmes: its magnificent Roman amphitheatre – Les Arènes – is in better condition than the one in Arles, and is the setting for bullfighting and open-air concerts (Tel: 04 66 21 82 56; www.arenes-nimes.fr).
Another impressive feat of Roman engineering is the Pont du Gard, the three-tiered aqueduct that spans the Gardon river in the east of the region, near Uzès.
Walking and hiking in Languedoc-Roussillon
Languedoc is prime walking territory. The Parc Naturel Régional du Haut-Languedoc is at the southernmost point of the Massif Central, and includes the Montagne Noire, Mont Caroux, the Monts de Lacaune and the Monts d’Orb.
The whole area covers more than 1,000 square miles of mountains, rivers, lakes and forests, with pleasant towns such as Bédarieux, Olargues and St-Pons-de-Thomières to use as a base for a walking or cycling holiday.
The Pyrenees provide even more vigorous exercise thanks to the higher altitudes. Horse-lovers can explore the landscapes and villages of the Camargue, where the delta of the Rhône river has created an unusually open landscape, but one that is best avoided at certain times of year by those who suffer from insect bites.
Eat and drink?
Do you like oysters? A visit to the Etang de Thau, the large lagoon between Sète and Agde, reveals mile upon mile of oyster, mussel and whelk beds, the products of which end up on plates throughout the region, but are at their best freshly hoiked from the sea.
A visit to Sète should include a taste of its seafood version of a Cornish pasty, the tielle, filled with octopus, squid and spices.
Meat lovers can get their fill with the south-west’s most celebrated dish, cassoulet, the ingredients of which are debated endlessly by the chefs in the three main locations – Carcassonne, Castelnaudary and Toulouse.
Wash all of this down with wine from France’s largest wine-making region. For many years, Languedoc-Roussillon wine-makers concentrated more on quantity than quality, but a major rethink means that they now produce high-class wine with appellations including Corbières, Minervois, Faugères and Pic St-Loup.